In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful.
It is acknowledged by many philosophers and others, atheists and theists, that one cannot prove or disprove the existence of God by means of logical arguments. In this context, the Promised Messiah a.s. has written that the most logical arguments can do is reach the conclusion that there ought to be a God. It is by means of divine revelation that one becomes certain that He is i.e. He does exist.
Allah the Most High states about Himself:
“Eyes cannot reach Him but He reaches the eyes. And He is the incomprehensible, the All-Aware” [Q. 6: 103]
Our physical eyes do not have the power and ability to see God. One way that God ‘reaches the eyes’ is by means of the fulfilment of true dreams, which can be experienced by all sorts of people, though the righteous ones see true dreams of greater quality and in more quantity than the (habitual) sinners.
The Promised Messiah (peace be upon him) writes:
“Here God Almighty has indicated three types of knowledge, namely knowledge by certainty of reason, knowledge by certainty of sight, and knowledge by certainty of experience. This might be illustrated thus. When a person perceives smoke from a distance his mind conceives that smoke and fire are inseparable, and therefore where there is smoke there must be fire also. This would be knowledge by the certainty of reason. Then on a nearer approach he sees the flames of the fire and that is knowledge by the certainty of sight. Should he enter into the fire, that would be knowledge by the certainty of experience. …
The Holy Quran has drawn attention to three types of knowledge:
knowledge by way of certainty of inference, knowledge by way of
certainty of sight, and knowledge by way of certainty of experience. As we have already explained knowledge by certainty of inference is that a thing should be known not directly but through something through which it can be inferred, as by observing smoke we infer the existence of fire. We do not see the fire, but see the smoke and because of it we believe in the existence of the fire. Then if we see the fire, this, according to the Holy Quran, would be certainty by sight. If we were to enter into the fire, our knowledge would have the quality of certainty by experience. We have set out all this already and we refer our listeners and readers to that exposition.”
Source: The Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam]
Thus, logical arguments trying to prove the existence of God are a form of ‘knowledge by inference’, in that one may infer from them that God ought to exist, but this is not satisfying or sufficiently convincing for the truth-seeker, and can lead to doubts.
Fulfilled prophecies and true dreams can serve as ‘knowledge by sight’, in that the more one sees such prophecies and one’s own dreams fulfilled, as well as those of others one may become aware of, the more one becomes convinced of existence of a Being who has knowledge of the unseen (future). However, true dreams often contain an element of symbolism, as do prophecies at times, which requires interpretation. The rules of interpretation of the symbolic elements in true dreams and prophecies is not common knowledge.
If a seeker of God the Most High advances in faith and righteous practices, and attains nearness to God, he/she may begin to experience divine revelation, which is the convincing and satisfying form of ‘knowledge by experience’.
[19:76] Allah increases in guidance those who follow the guidance.
[20:47] Peace be upon those who follow the guidance.